By Kerson Huang
This attention-grabbing ebook presents the actual and mathematical history for a conception describing the universe as a quantum superfluid, and the way darkish power and darkish topic come up. featuring a unique conception spanning many alternative fields in physics, the major strategies in each one box are introduced.The reader is barely anticipated to grasp the rudiments of condensed subject physics, quantum box thought and normal relativity to discover this interesting new version of darkish subject and darkish strength as elements of a cosmic superfluid.
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For personal use only. Acoustical branch k 0 k0 = 2π/L0 Fig. 2 The Goldstone modes with ω = ck are split into “optical” and “acoustical” branches by gravity. The order parameter will clump into patches of size L0 ; but under present conditions in the universe, L0 is much larger than the radius of the universe. 6 Non-relativistic limit In the non-relativistic limit, φ has a large frequency ω corresponding to σ = ωt. This gives a mass scale mc2 = h¯ ω. The relativistic ﬁeld contains both signs of the frequency: φ = e−iωt Ψ+ + eiωt Ψ− , and the second term can be neglected when ω is large.
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