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REPSOLD, J. \stronomischen :;VIef3werkzeuge. Leipzig: \V. Engelmann 1908. - A complete outline of the development of the heliostat and the coelostat, with descriptions of many other types of instruments used for solar observations. : Handbuch der Experimentalphysik, ed. by \V. \VIEN and F. HARMS, Vol. 26. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft 1937. - An account of the instruments for the measurement of the solar constant. Bits of information about solar instruments are scattered throughout this yolume.
13. The mirror reflects the spectrum to a focus on a fixed slit that is the entrance aperture for a photoelectric cell. Motion of the spectrum across the slit can be very rapid since only a small mirror must be rotated. The deflection of the light spot of an oscilloscope indicates the variations in spectral intensity. These are recorded on a photographic film moved in synchronism with the rotating mirror that scans the spectrum 5 • The monochromator-photoelectric cell arrangements just described provide excellent intensity data, and with small changes in their mode of operation may be used for the measurement of relative wavelengths.
Both of these scanning methods advance very slowly through the spectrum of a high dispersion spectroscope, generally not faster than at rates of one to four minutes per angstrom, and the instruments and observing conditions must be stable during the time required to record a region of the spectrum, or the records will be useless. The major causes of instability within the spectroscope are minimized by pumping the air out of the instrument, and several methods of making allowance for instability of the sky transparency and image unsteadiness have been developed.