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Extra resources for Addressing the Economics of Waste
Non-compliance may partly be explained by the lack or inadequacy of environmental monitoring and penalties and by higher taxes on landfill and final disposal or the introduction of “pay-as-you-throw” taxes, based on the weight of waste produced (Kinnaman and Fullerton, Horton). x Poor waste management in the past can create an inherited burden. In several countries, unsupervised landfills have led to the long-term contamination of soil and groundwater. The costs of restoring the environment are very high and for that reason sometimes have to be assumed by central government, as is the case in Spain.
For more on circumstances in developing countries, see Bartone (2000) and the references therein. 44 consumption generates waste that can either go into garbage collection or into recycling that can be re9 used in production. Assume that n identical consumers each maximize utility subject to a budget constraint and a mass-balance equation given by c = c(g, r), where c is consumption, g is garbage, and r is recycling generated. The general form c(g, r) represents the various combinations of g and r that are consistent with any particular level of consumption, possibly with a varying rate of tradeoff (but strict mass balance would require c = g + r).
Per Capita Municipal Waste Mid-1990’s Austria Belgium Canada Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Spain Sweden Turkey UK USA Landfilled waste Incinerated waste Recycled waste 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Source: OECD. ) and the European Free Trade Area. European efforts to decouple economic growth from waste generation have been relatively unsuccessful. As a whole, Europe generates more 7 than 306 million tons of municipal waste every year, an average of 415 kg per capita in 2000.