Download Ageing And Employment Policies: The Arable Crop Sector by Organisation for Economic Co-Operation a PDF

By Organisation for Economic Co-Operation a

ISBN-10: 9264009965

ISBN-13: 9789264009967

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Additional info for Ageing And Employment Policies: The Arable Crop Sector (Agriculture, Trade and the Environment)

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Chemical inputs Increased use of agro-chemicals such as fertilisers and pesticides has been one of the most prominent factors increasing arable crop yields. Historically, around one-third of the increase in cereal production worldwide has been attributed to increased fertiliser consumption (FAO, 2003). Fertiliser and pesticide use vary significantly by arable crop, by country and by region. Their rate of application depends on a variety of factors, including soil type, crop mix, crop rotation, irrigation, climate, technology and government policies.

On the other hand, irrigated rice production systems may cause problems of soil salinisation and waterlogging, particularly in regions where irrigation water is often of poor quality and paddy fields are provided with inadequate drainage (van Tran, 1998). Expansion of upland rice farming systems may increase soil erosion and deforestation. The draining of coastal wetlands for rice cultivation can lead to the dehydration of soil, often causing sulphur to rise to the surface, with consequent acidification (Barbier and Mouret, 1998).

A5). The United States allocates almost half of its fertiliser use to wheat and maize, while France devotes three-quarters of its fertiliser use to rapeseed. 6. Chemical use for selected crops in the United States, 1999 Percentage of area treated and total fertiliser applied Nitrogen Fertiliser use, by nutrient: Phosphate Potash Percentage of area receiving applications and total pesticides applied Herbicides Pesticide use, by class: Insecticides Fungicides (%) 1 000 t (%) 1 000 t (%) 1 000 t (%) 1 000 t 97 21 91 14 90 18 39 13 Corn 98 4 064 82 1 381 67 1 696 98 Soybeans 18 116 26 369 28 672 Sunflower 90 79 43 15 8 Cotton 86 445 59 177 52 Wheat 1 (%) 1 000 t 70 30 5 96 32 2 9 1 95 1 283 33 55 252 97 11 84 18 (%) 1 000 t 7 329 Note: 1.

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